Published as part of a special edition (the Grand Army Edition) of the Daily Mercury, this is a rare bird’s-eye-view centered on the Santa Clara Valley, showing Silicon Valley nearly one hundred years prior to its ascendency as the technology capital of the world. The view is rendered from San Francisco, with south shown at the top, and extends from southern Marin County in the north all the way to Paso Robles Hot Springs in the south.
In terms of natural geography, the defining features are the mountain ranges that delineate the Santa Clara Valley. Running along the left side (east) of the view are the Sierra Nevadas. Opposite on the right side (west) are the Coast Mountains, which can be subdivided into the Santa Cruz Mountains extending north from Santa Cruz and along the San Francisco peninsula, and the Santa Lucia Range running south of Monterey Bay.
In terms of the cultural landscape, the defining feature is the network of railroads, along with the towns at which they stop. All railroads lead to San Jose at the southern end of the San Francisco Bay, including various divisions of the Southern Pacific Railroad. The Northern Division runs to San Jose from San Francisco, Ocean View (*note that there is no South San Francisco, this being before its incorporation and expansion), San Bruno, Millbrae, San Mateo, Belmont, Redwood City, Menlo Park, Mayfield (which became Palo Alto), Mountain View, and Santa Clara.
At lower left, presented on a scroll frame, is a superb Civil War camp scene drawn by C. H. Harmun, who lived in San Jose in the 1880s. It depicts a Union soldier standing tall with his rifle, with canon, other soldiers, tents, and a large American flag in the background. Directly behind the soldier is a kind of medallion, within which is a maritime scene that features a large ship, a lighthouse, and possibly another small ship. During the Civil War, coastal fortifications were built or improved along the Pacific Ocean. To protect the Bay Area, especially the port of San Francisco, the shipping point of gold and silver from the Pacific Coast, from possible attacks by Confederate commerce raiders or the fleets of the British or French empires, Fort Point and Camp Sumner were constructed at the edge of the Presidio, as well as at Fort Baker on the Marin Headlands. One Civil War-era fort, the Post of Alcatraz Island or Fort Alcatraz, served as a prison for secessionists and later became the infamous Federal penitentiary. San Francisco Bay was also protected by the Benicia Arsenal, Fort Mason at San Francisco’s Point San Jose, and Camp Reynolds on Angel Island.
The entire work is richly illustrated, with twenty-two pages of text, including a section on Stanford University.